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Another highly-interesting fact concerning these same antlers
is their gradual increase in complexity of tines and palm from
the Miocene Oermis matheroni to the great Irish Elk of post-
Tertiary times.
Beyond the antlers there seems to be no character of universal
applicability which distinguishes the Cervidae from the nearly-
related Antelopes. There are, however, a number of structural
features which are nearly universally characteristic. Excepting
MoBchus (which Professor Garrod would not allow to be a " Deer "),
no Cervine has a gall-bladder1 to its liver. All Bovidae (in-
cluding Antelopes) have, with the exception of Cephalophus.
A small but constant character of the Deer is the existence of
two orifices to the lachrymal duct. The genus Tragelaphus alone
among Antelopes shows this character.
So far as is known the placenta of the Deer has but few
cotyledons, that of the Bovidae many. But not many types are
The navicular, cuboid and ectocuneiform are often united.
This is never the case in the Bovidae.
The first and second phalanges of the lateral (imperfectly
developed) digits are always present except in the Muntjacs;
they are never found in Bovidae. The Deer always present a
light brown to a darker brown coloration. JZlapfoodits micJiianus
is almost black. There is commonly white on the under parts
and beneath the short tail. Some Deer, such as the Fallow Deer,
are spotted; and the young of others that are uniformly coloured
when adult are spotted. In some cases a winter coat, darker
than the summer coat, is developed.
Altogether some sixty species of Deer are known, of which
the preponderance are Old-World forma The Deer of the Old
World are distributed among the genera 2 Oervus (all Europe and
Asia); Oervulus, the Muntjacs (India, Burmah, China, etc.);
Ifydropotes (Eastern China); Capreol<us (Europe and Central
Asia); JSla/phodus (Eastern China); there is one American
O&rvns, the Wapiti The American genera are Cariacus and
FudwM. The Elk {Alces) and the Beindeer (Rwngifer) are circum-
polar. The principal structural modification which occurs within
1 It ba* "been occasionally recorded in an Axis Deer, and in another species,
%r^a*st m^ermMfxr^.                        , >>
* It is mot every oe that admity s ipuay genera,    I follow Sir "Victor Brooke,